I don’t think Fitzgerald was racist. Given the time period, he grew up before black people were treated the same as whites. There was still a strong racist feeling in some parts of the Country, and the KKK was out spreading their ideas in all parts of the US. I think Fitzgerald was a little worried about promoting Harlem, which would be promoting music produced by black people. It was just how things were. Whites, a lot of the time, didn't feel comfortable praising black achievements. That doesn't mean he was racist, though, in my opinion. I think the reason that Fitzgerald referred to The Rise of the Colored Empires was, again, because of the times in which he grew up in. An example of that would be the restrictive Immigration Bill mentioned by Lois Tyson. America was in a time of worry and prejudice. Readers: do you think that Fitzgerald, or other people for that matter, should be labeled as “racist” just because of some things that they did “suggest” racism?